Robert Cliquet and Dragana Avramov (2018)

Challenges and choices for humankind.

Springer. 1st ed. 2018, XIII, 535p. 15 Illus.
ISBN 978-3-319-73089-9


The book aims to revitalise the interdisciplinary debate about evolutionary ethics and substantiate the idea that evolution science can provide a rational and robust framework for understanding morality. It also traces pathways for knowledge-based choices to be made about directions for future long-term biological evolution and cultural development in view of adaptation to the expected, probable and possible future and the ecological sustainability of our planetary environment

The authors discuss ethical challenges associated with the major biosocial sources of human variation: individual variation, inter-personal variation, inter-group variation, and inter-generational variation.

The book approaches the long-term challenges of the human species in a holistic way. Researchers will find an extensive discussion of the key theoretical scientific aspects of the relationship between evolution and morality. Policy makers will find information that can help them better understand from where we are coming and inspire them to make choices and take actions in a longer-term perspective. The general public will find food for thoughts.

Chapter 1. Setting the Stage for Reflecting on a Universal Morality
Chapter 2. Origin and Evolution of Morality
Chapter 3. Adaptive and Maladaptive Features of Religious Beliefs as Sources of Morality
Chapter 4. Challenges of Major Secular Ideologies
Chapter 5. Evolution-Based Universal Morality
Chapter 6. Evolution-Based Ethical Challenges related to Individual Variability
Chapter 7. Evolution-Based Ethical Challenges related to Group Relations
Chapter 8. Evolution-Based Ethical Challenges related to Intergenerational Replacement
Chapter 9. Conclusions and Final Reflections


Robert Cliquet (2010)

Biosocial Interactions in Modernisation

Brno: Masaryk University Press. ISBN: 978-80-210-4986-4. 726 pp.; 67b/w illus., 9 tabls. Cloth paperback. Price: 85€.

This book examines major societal problems resulting from the clash between humankind’s evolutionary heritage and biosocial challenges in modernisation. With the goal of dealing with these issues in a comprehensive and coherent way, the subject matter is approached from the perspective of the major sources of biosocial variation: individual variation, age variation, sexual variation, family variation, reproductive variation, social class variation, racial variation, and intergenerational variation. The book relates these key sources of human biosocial variation to maladaptive social practices in the modern world, such as ‘individualism’, ‘ageism’, ‘sexism’, ‘familism’, ‘pro/anti-natalism’, ‘classism’, ‘racism’, and ‘dysgenism’.

For each source of variation, the analysis starts with the biological evolutionary background of the issue, then looks at its variability-specific biosocial interrelations, and examines the confrontation between the variability-specific evolutionary human heritage and the challenges and adaptive pressures of the novel environment that is created by the modernisation process.




Dragana Avramov, Robert Cliquet (2005)

Integrated Policies on Gender Relations,

Ageing and Migration in Europe

Lessons from the Network for Integrated European Population Studies (NIEPS)

CBGS Publicatie, 2005, 1. Leuven-Apeldoorn: Garant

ISBN 90-441-1728-9. 329pp.

This book addresses major societal trends associated with changes in gender relations, family-building and patterns of work, ageing, and integration of migrants, which mark Europe at the turn of the 21st century. It builds on the networking of 11 European Population institutes from Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, and Poland. The Network for integrated European Population Studies (NIEPS) took stock of research carried out at the national level and literature produced in a variety of European languages in view to provide the knowledge-base for integrated population-related policies at the European level.

The European Commission funded this network under the 5th Framework Programme ‘Improving the Socio-economic Knowledge Base’.

This book aims to present the state of the art overview of recent demographic trends and to identify challenges that population changes pose to the society and to the individual citizens. The focus is on the analysis of three clusters of issues as they relate to family formation, gender relations and work patterns; ageing of Europe’s population; and immigration and integration of migrants. For each cluster needs for research are identified and topical surveys proposed. For each cluster need for policy adaptation and reform are argued. The concluding chapter proposes a framework for an integrated approach to the knowledge-based policy regarding family, ageing, and migration and for the integration between the three clusters of themes.

This monograph capitalizes on the stock-taking of NIEPS and personal research of the authors.


Robert Cliquet, Kristiaan Thienpont (1995)

Population and Sustainability

A Message from the Cairo Conference

European Studies of Population, Volume 3.

Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

ISBN 0-7923-3763-8. 180pp.

Since the onset of modernisation the world population doubled several times and will soon reach six billion of people. The annual rate of increase in the world population is approximately 90 million people. This is the largest absolute level of population growth ever recorded. According to the most recent population projections of the United Nations, the world population will probably double again before stabilising at a stationary level. Ninety percent of the present and future population growth is accounted for by developing countries.

The fast increase in the size of population in many developing countries is a serious obstacle to their attempts to overcome their backwardness, make a substantial improvement to their quality of life, and achieve a sustainable way of exploiting their renewable and non-renewable resources. At the same i-time, non-sustainable consumption and production patterns in the industrial countries and among wealthy citizens in developing countries place an additional burden on the plant’s natural resources and ecosystems.

With a view of considering these problems and elaborating policy guidelines the United Nations staged its International Conference on Population and Development (ICDP) in Cairo, Egypt, from September -13, 1994.

This monograph deals with the background of the ICPD, its preparation, proceedings and contents. It also evaluates its results and recommendations by comparing the ICPD Action Programme with the current scientific literature.

The ICPD dealt with the key issues concerning the interrelations between population, development and environment, and their causes, and was not limited to marginal issues such as abortion, promiscuity and homosexuality as was the impression given in the media as a result of the way these questions were distorted by the actions of religious fundamentalists. The ICPD Action Programme forms an impressive charter with a broad range of relevant policy recommendations. Nevertheless, compared to most of the current scientific literature, the ICPD seems to underestimate the seriousness and urgency of the issues at stake.



Robert Cliquet (Ed.) (1993)

The Future of Europe’s Population

A Scenario Approach

Population Studies 26. Strasbourg: Council of Europe

ISBN 92-871-2369-1



A precise prediction of the demographic future of Europe; by its very nature, is not possible. The comparative analysis of alternative scenarios, each one representing an alternative future, can nevertheless help to assess the impact of (certain) policies in an uncertain future.

This study explores possible paths for the basic demographic variables – fertility, mortality, migration – to show, through a multiple demographic scenario approach, possible future developments in population age structures and sizes, and their societal and policy implications.

This work is the result of a collaborative study by a team of experienced demographers carried out under the guideance of Professor Robert Cliquet, governmental representative of Belgium in the European Population Committee and General Director of the Population and Family Study Centre in the Ministry of the Flemish Community, Brussels. The scenario analyses were produced by the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria).


Robert Cliquet (Ed.) (1993)

L’Avenir de la population de l’Europe

Etudes Démographiques, Collection Démographie

Strasbourg: Les Editions du Conseil de l’Europe

ISBN 92-871-2368-3

Dans le cadre de la préparatio de la Conférence européenne sur la population de 1993, le Comité européen sur la population (CDPO) du Conseil de l’Europe a inclus dans son programme d’activités pour 1991-1992 un projet sur l’avenir de la population en Europe.

Ce projet avait pour but la réalisation d’une étude incluant une analyse des tendances récentes de la nuptialité et de la fécondité, des migrations et de la mortalité, l’élaboration de différents scénarios relatifs à l’évolution future de ces facteurs, la présentation des effets possibles des différents scénarios sur la taille, la croissance et la composition de la population ainsi qu’une esquisse des enjeux sociaux et des orientations politiques possibles.

Cette activité a été réalisée grâce à un comité de consultants, composé de quatre experts et présidé par un membre du CDPO, le Professeur R. Cliquet, directeur du Centre d’Etudes sur la Population et la Famille (CBGS) du gouvernement de la Flandre (Belgique). Les scénarios ont été réalisés à l’International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Autriche).


Robert Cliquet, Kristiaan Thienpont (2002)

Biologische variabiliteit bij de mens

Inleiding tot de biologische antropologie

Boekdeel 1. Determinanten en evolutie

Gent: Academia Press

ISBN 90 382 0430 2; xvii + 631 pp.

Biologische variabiliteit bij de mens is een algemene inleiding tot de bioanthropologie die zo weinig mogelijk gespecialiseerde voorkennis vereist. Het boek kan gebruikt worden als handboek voor gedrags- en sociale wetenschappen maar het is evenzeer een hedendaagse synthese van de biologische ontwikkelingen van de mens in tijd en ruimte die een breed publiek kan aanspreken.

Boekdeel I behandelt de determinanten van biologische variabiliteit en de evolutie van de mens.


Robert Cliquet, Kristiaan Thienpont (2005)

Biologische variabiliteit bij de mens

Inleiding tot de biologische antropologie

Boekdeel 2. Biologische variabiliteit

Gent: Academia Press.

ISBN 90 382 04329; x + 516 pp.

Biologische variabiliteit bij de mens is een algemene inleiding tot de bioanthropologie die zo weinig mogelijk gespecialiseerde voorkennis vereist. Het boek kan gebruikt worden als handboek voor gedrags- en sociale wetenschappen maar het is evenzeer een hedendaagse synthese van de biologische ontwikkelingen van de mens in tijd en ruimte die een breed publiek kan aanspreken.
Boekdeel II behandelt de onderscheiden vormen van biologische variatie bij de mens.


Kristiaan Thienpont, Robert Cliquet (Eds.) (1999)

In-group/out-group behaviour in modern societies

An evolutionary perspective

Brussels/The Hague: NIDI/CBGS Publications, Vol. 34

ISBN  0923-3512; xiv + 301pp.


One of the major population problems modern societies are facing, is long distance migration and its social, cultural and political consequences with respect to the integration of the migrants in de host countries and their relations with the autochthonous populations. But also old-time in-group/out-group conflicts and inter-ethnic tensions seem to persist or re-emerge, – as a result of national emancipatory movements induced by globalisation and democratisation or of the collapse of communist regimes. Both the new sources of multi-cultural tensions and the persistence or re-emergence of old-time inter-ethnic conflicts justify the idea to reconsider the evolutionary analysis of in-group/out-group relations. The most recent societal changes set the stage for outlining the directions for the future. Not only do we find ourselves on the eve of  the century but we will most likely find ourselves at the dawn of a new technological era. This may change the selective environment for future human populations.

This volume presents a selection of papers dealing with in-group/out-group relations. It offers explanations of conflicts between groups, of the often uneasy balance in ethnic relations and of the way individual behaviour is determined by the in-group/out-group context individuals find themselves in or perceive themselves to be in. The common element throughout the volume is the theoretical angle from which the papers depart. The explanatory frameworks all rely on evolutionary biology in general or sociobiology in particular.

Inter-group relations constitute one of the important and ethically and politically sensitive population problems. Therefore, the focus of this volume is not only on the theoretical and empirical studies of these phenomena and their general underlying causes, but also on the policy implications involved.

The unifying theme of this volume is the view that inter-group relations are an important source of possible conflicts and that an evolutionary perspective on in-group/out-group behaviour in modern societies can help our societies and policy makers to better understand and consequently to resolve, manage or even prevent problems.

This book emerged from the 20th annual meeting of the European Sociobiology Society (ESS) which was held from 7 to 9 July 1997, hosted by the Department of Population Sciences, Section Biological Anthropology and Social Biology, of the Ghent University (Belgium).


Joseph Chamie, Robert Cliquet (Eds.) (1999)

Health and Mortality:

Issues of Global Concern

Proceedings of the Symposium on Health and Mortality, Brussels, 19-22 November 1997

Leuven: Ceuterick

ISBN 90-403-0100-X; xvi + 467 pp.

This volume presents the collected set of papers presented at the Symposium on Health and Mortality organized by the United Nations Population Division in collaboration with the Population and Family Study Centre (CBGS) of the Government of Flanders (Belgium) that was held in Brussels from 19 to 22 November 1997. The Symposium brought together experts in the study of health and morality to review the state of knowledge in the field, analyse recent trends and discuss prospects for the improvement of the health status in different regions of the world.

The Symposium’s deliberations highlighted the truly remarkable progress made during the twentieth century in ppstponing death and increasing the span of healthy life for all the world’s inhabitants. However, they also underscored the large disparities that still exist between the average expected lifespan in developed countries and that typical of the developing world. Although major headway has been made in combatting infectious and parasitic diseases, the latter are still major causes of death in most developing countries. The emergence of new infectious diseases and the re-emergence of others, as the methods used to control them lose effectiveness, are a cause of concern. Furthermore, although considerable advances have been made in reducing mortality due to non-communicable diseases in developed countries, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and cancer has not declined in countries with economies in transition and, combined with high mortality rates because of accidents or violence, has been at the root of the stagnation or even the decline of life expectnacy that some of those countries experienced over the past decade or two. The analysis of selected behavioural factors associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality suggests that increasing levels of smoking or alcohol intake, for instance, contribute or have the potential to contribute to a considerable proportion of premature mortality. The importance of traffic accidents and violence as causes of health impairment and death is also rising; and the evidence linking certain nutritional patterns to higher incidence of degenerative diseases is growing. The challenge is therefore to devise effective means to influence individual behaviour so as to reduce the prevalence of risk factors contributing to health impairment and early death. These conclusions are based on the wealth of meterial presented in this volume.


Robert Cliquet, Mohammed Nizamuddin (Eds.) (1999)

Population Ageing

Challenges for Policies and Programmes in Developed and Developing Countries.

Leuven: Ceuterick.


Cliquet, R. (red.) (1996), Gezinnen in de verandering. Veranderende gezinnen. CBGS Monografie 1996/2. Brussel: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap.


Cliquet, R., K. Thienpont (1994), Bevolking en duurzaamheid. Een uitdaging voor de 21ste eeuw. Resultaten van de Internationale Conferentie over Bevolking en Ontwikkeling, Caïro, 5-13 september, 1994. CBGS-Monografie, 1994, 2. Brussel: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap.



Cliquet, R., M. Callens (Red.) (1993), Gezinsvorming in Vlaanderen: hoe en wanneer? Resultaten van de Enquête Gezinsontwikkeling 1991 (NEGO V). CBGS-Monografie, 1993, 1. Brussel: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezins­studiën.  Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap.


Cliquet, R. (1991), The Second Demographic Transition: Fact or Fiction ? Population Studies, no. 23. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.


Cliquet, R. (1991), La deuxième transition démographique: réalité ou fiction? Etudes démographiques, n° 23. Strasbourg : Conseil de l’Europe.




Cliquet, R. (Ed.) (1991), Desirabilities and Possibilities of a Fertility Recovery at Replacement Level in Europe. NIDI­/CBGS Publications, vol. 21, Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.


Cliquet, R., L. Vanden Boer (Eds.) (1989), Economic and Social Implications of Ageing in the ECE Region. NIDI/CBGS Publications 19. The Hague/Brussels: NIDI and CBGS.




Cliquet, R. (Red.) (1988), 25 jaar C.B.G.S.  Terugblik en toekomstverkenning. C.B.G.S. Monografie 4. Brussel: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap.


Deven, F., R. Cliquet (1986), One-Parent Families in Europe. The Hague/­Brussels: A NIDI/CBGS Publication.


Cliquet, R., L. Van de Velde (1984), De wereldbevolking op een keerpunt ?  Resultaten van de Internationale Bevol­kingsconferentie, Mexico, 6-14 augustus 1984, C.B.G.S. Monografie 3. Brussel: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap.


Cliquet, R., J. Balcaen (1983), Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Family-Size Variation.  Results of Fertility Research in Flanders. NIDI/CBGS Publications, Vol. 11, Voorburg/Brussels: NIDI and CBGS.



Cliquet, R., J. Balcaen (1980), Hoeveel kinderen zullen wij hebben ? Kwantitatieve en Kwalitatieve aspecten. Studies en Documenten 14, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezins­studiën. Kapellen: De Sikkel/De Nederlandsche Boekhandel.


Cliquet, R., R. Debusschere (Eds.) (1984), Relationeel en reproductief gedrag in Vlaanderen.  Eerste resultaten van de Nationale Enquête Gezinsontwikkeling 1982-1983 (NEGO IV). C.B.G.S.-Monografie 1984/1. Brussel: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap.


Cliquet, R. (1983), Sociobiologie.  Een controversiële wetenschap. BRT Brochure.  Brussel: Dienst Pers en Publikaties van de BRT.


Cliquet, R., R. Schoenmaeckers (1976), From incidental to planned parenthood. A NIDI/C.B.G.S. Publication 2.  Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Social Sciences Division.



Cliquet, R., R. Schoenmaekers, m.m.v. M. Thiery, G. Van den bogaert, R. Van Malderghem, F. Van loon, L. Klinkenborg, F. Deven, A.M. Lerou (1975), Van toevallig naar gepland ouderschap.  Resultaten van de Nationale Enquête Gezinsontwikkeling 1971 (NEGO II). Studies en Documenten nr. 6, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën.  Kapellen: De Nederlandsche Boekhandel/De Sikkel.


Cliquet, R., D. Veys (1974), Naar een wereldbevolkingspolitiek? De Wereldbevolkingsconferentie in Boekarest, 19/30 augustus 1974Studies en Documenten 4, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën. Kapellen: De Nederlandsche Boekhandel/De Sikkel.


Cliquet, R., M. Thiery, m.m.v. S. De Batselier, M. Depraetere, F. Deven, G. Dooghe, R. Lesthaeghe, L. Roelens, P. Ryelandt, K. Vanderheyden, H. Van Kets, G. Van den Bogaert, F. Van Loon, R. Vlietinck, E. Zwertvagher (1972), Abortus Provocatus.  Een interdisciplinaire studie m.b.t. beleidsalterna­tieven voor België. Studies en Documenten, 2, Centrum voor Bevolkings-en Gezinsstudiën. Kapellen: De Sikkel/De Nederlandsche Boekhandel.


Cliquet, R. (1965), Antropologie: Herkomst, wezen en toekomst van de mens. Onze Horizon. Antwerpen: De Sikkel.


Cliquet, R. (1963), Bijdrage tot de kennis van het verband tussen de sociale status en een aantal antropobiologische kenmerken.  Een sociaal-biologisch onderzoek op Vlaamse mannen van 19- en 20-jarige leeftijd. Verhandelingen van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België.  Klasse der Wetenschappen.  Verhandeling nr. 72. Brussel: Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België.


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